Historical writing that describes the extreme cold of the Little Ice Age was written by Bishop Gudmundur of Iceland.
"This servant of God was Bishop of the country which the books call Thile, but which Northmen call Iceland. It must be said that this is an appropriate name for the Island, as there is plenty of ice both on land and on sea. On the sea there is sea ice, which fills up the northern harbors in great quantity, and on the high mountains of the country there are permanently frozen glaciers."
(The Saga of Bishop Gudmundur, cira 1350.
Historians wrote about the Frozen Trail within a few years after the migration from Greenland to America happened. The desperate man who chisled the Kensington stone in 1356 was part of a military expedition to recover the lost Christions of Greenland.
In 1360 an Icelandic Bishop, Oddsson, wrote:
"The inhabitants of Greenland of their own free will have abandoned the true faith ....and joined themselves with the folk of America."
In 1364, the author of the Inventio Fortunatae wrote of
"...nearly 4000 people who 'entered the indrawing seas [beyond Greenland] who never returned."back to top Maalan Aarum (Engraved Years) also known as the Walam Olum.The Malan Aarum is a manuscript of pictographs and stanzas first published in 1836 by Rafinesque as a historical narrative of the Lenape (aka Delaware) Native American People.
The strongest argument against the authenticity of the Malan Aarum was made by PhD student David N. Oestreicher, Unmasking the Walam Olum
Maalan Aarum (aka Walam Olum)A major item of evidence is the true American history called the Maalan Aarum (Engraved years) also known as the Walam Olum
"The Algonquins with one voice called those of their tribes living nearest the rising sun, ABNAKIS, meaning our ancestors at the east or dawn; literally our WHITE ANCESTORS.
I designedly emphasize this literal rendering, because I accept without hesitation the derivation of this word, proposed and defended by that most accomplished Algonquin scholar, the Rev. Eugene Vetromile."
[The Abanakis and Their History, page 29, New York, 1866.
Bighton, Daniel G., Myths of the New World, page 188.]
Comments: The Abnakis are one of twelve Northeast America tribes that have traditions of their ancestors coming from the east over a salty sea.
During the writing of the Frozen Trail to Merica, (2006) the word "Abnaki" was determined to mean "Alban Land" in Old Norse
By Larry Stroud
Batesville Daily Guard
For the first time on an “official” Web site, an American Indian tradition that some tribes’ ancestors came to ancient America from the east has been presented. Several tribes have such traditions.
Official academic dogma is that all ancestors of the Indians came to ancient America by walking across the Bering Strait land bridge that existed in the distant past.
This is definitely a breakthrough moment.
On a “thread” of discussion on the National Parks Traveler site, stemming from a post about a Lenne Lenape Indian exhibit, a Wapanaki Indian writes that according to migration charts done on eastern Algonquin birch scrolls (also spelled Algonkin) and knowledge provided by wampum belts, his ancient ancestors moved from east to west, not from west to east.
My fellow researcher Myron Paine has insisted for years that his research shows that oceans were not barriers to reaching America from other lands, but instead were moving highways and that many ancient peoples came here in many boats from many places at many times.
From the National Parks Traveler Website
On December 10th, 2009
I forgot to mention . According to the migration charts done on eastern Algonkin birch scrolls and the knowledge provide on the Wampum belts holograms connected with the stars and our constellation, the migration of my people came from an island in the atlanctic ocean called Atlantisaalso called in dakota Mdewakantatonwan also called Midewin by the other Algonkin tribe....
Opinions about Migration
The whole of the north Atlantic coast, between Cape Fear and Cape Hatteras, was occupied at the discovery by the Algonkin stock. Their northern limit reached far into Labrador, where they were in immediate contact with the Eskimos, and along the southern shores of Hudson Bay, and its western literal as far north as Churchill river... Where their ancient home was situated has been the subject of careful investigations, the result of which may be said to be that traditions, archeology, and linguistic analysis combine to point to the north and the east, in other words, to some spot north of the St. Lawrence and east of Lake Ontario, as the original home of the stock.
(Brinton, 1891, pp. 74-75)
"...All the northern Algonquin tribes we have mentioned, so far as there early migrations can be traced, have entered the United States territory from the north side of the [Great] lakes ..."
"1342 -- The inhabitants of the Western Settlement emigrated en masse to the Canadian arctic and continental America".
"Ivar Bardsson's description and Gisle Oddsson's annals strongly suggest that the Vesterbygd people emigrated en masse ...to North America"
On December 7th, 2009
Leni Lenape means, “Pure, abiding with Pure.” [Reiter T. Sherwin, The Viking and the Red Man, Vol 1, p.168.]
The “Pure” means pure as in being a Christian. The Lenape ancestors had been Christians for 350 years before they walked across frozen Davis Strait to become the Lenape, the Mahigan, and the Shawnee. [See www.frozentrail.org ] Click on DOWNLOADS > iTEMS #7 or #8
The migration of the Leni Lenape is recorded in the oldest True American History.
On December 8th, 2009
Thanks for the feedback, Myron. The map and related information at that website you've referenced are very interesting. As to the meaning of the term Lenni Lenape, well, I'm just going to step out of the picture and let others decide the mater. I just don't know for sure. There are around three dozen separate languages in the Algonquian language family and I find every single one of them confusing. Sources I've consulted carry interpretations of Lenni Lenape (variously spelled Leni Lenape) ranging from true people to pure people to real men to pure men to original men. I suspect that if I had chosen to use the term "pure people" in my article I would have caught flak from people championing other translations. Again, thank you for your comment and the additional information. You've convinced me that the story of the Leni Lenape migration is something I should know more about.
On December 10th, 2009
I was confused about the Leni Lenape name in the beginning. The “true,” “real;” and “original” people labels came from our Euramerican ancestors, who had difficulty describing a “pure” person. Especially because our ancestors brain washed each other into believing the natives had no religion. My Shawnee and Leni Lenape authorities insist they behave more like Christians than Euramericans do.
Then I found Reider T. Sherwin. He took word lists from 25 Algonquin speaking tribes and combined them. In the Viking and the Red Man, Vol. 1, Page 158 & 159 he lists all those names you and I found. He shows that the Norse “aa bye” turned into “ape.” In America and abide in English. So the end of the name definitely means “abide with.” Norse and Algonquin syntax is different than English so the “Len” leads the “ape.”
The letters “R” and “L” are formed in the mouth by almost the same mechanics. So “R” and ”L” are often interchanged by people living in different times and spaces. There is the Powhatten Renape Museum and the Lenape High School, both in New Jersey. Whether the word is “Renape” or “Lenape” the ancestors were “Leni Lenape” and Sherwin recorded that they called their fore fathers “Noosh” [Norsk].(pg 130).
“Len” means “pure” because “Len” morphed from “Hrein” in Old Norse. “Ren”and “rein” still means “pure” in modern Norwegian. Before the Little Ice Age a Catholic Bishop built the cathedral in Greenland. He named the fjord and the island at the mouth of the fjord, “Hrein.’
I encourage you to honor the Leni Lenape, who have endured so much of EurAmericans actions caused by misunderstanding. Please use the true definition, “the pure, abiding with the pure.”
I will send you the two pages from Sherwin defining the Leni Lenape and the pages defining the “Noosh” fore fathers.
On December 10th, 2009
Fascinating stuff, Myron. I'll be sure to keep that info and your recommended translation in mind when writing about the Leni Lenape.
On December 10th, 2009
For your information to all there is no R in most native languages exept for word borrowed from languages spoken in Europe.
Claude Aubin Wabanaki also Bemdynick .back to top
On December 11th, 2009
For as long as I can remember, Lennie Lenape was a word described to mean "Original People". I dont know who put this meaning forth, but It seemed to make sense, as they were considered "the Grandfather" of several other Algonquin Nations.
I suppose off-shoots, who moved further away in search of food and hunting territory.To suggest "pure People" perhaps is in line with original people. To suggest pure means Christian, raises some questions. Were pagans then considered not pure? Did the early vikings who inhabited America follow the christian religion at all? Were they not only pretty much abandoned in Greenland by everybody including the church? In the course of several hundred years would they not lose any Christian teachings they once had, and as they blended and had contact with other natives here and go with more natural beliefs which focused on their survival? Just questions, not neccessarily meant to differ on any opinion or propositions. Yours in the search of truth and history.
Ron (Gunn) Goebel
On December 12th, 2009
Thank you for your comment, Mr. Paine, but Leni Lenape does not mean "pure, abiding with pure." It means "Ordinary People". While there are many Lenape Christians today, historically, we were never Christians! We pre-date Christianity by 13,000 years! Many Lenape & their descendants do not support the Bering Strait theory, believing our Creation Stories that we have always been here in the east. The link you site is erroneously skewed. to support their own theories. If you would like correct research regarding my People, I recommend the late Dr. Herb Kraft, & Dr. David M. Oeistreicher. We are aware there are many published and Internet sites with incorrect information. I, and others, have been working for many years regarding this, but if one refuses to correct their mis-information, there is not much we can do. I am Lenape, of Six Nations Reserve, Ohswekan, Ontario Canada, & a Lenape Historian, Consultant, Artist, Educator & Storyteller.
I have attended this wonderful exhibit & am happily acquainted with Dr. Oestriecher. I was honored to recently be able to welcome Lenape descendants from OK. & KS. and guide them through this exhibit. I highly recommend viewing it before it is replaced by another. Dr. Oestreicher is working on obtaining a permanent home for this exciting & accurate exhibit, and I hope it will be soon.back to top
On December 12th, 2009
Thank you for providing additional interesting perspective on the true meaning of Leni Lenape, Cathy. I'm sure we'll hear from others in due course. Meanwhile, it's exciting to think that this remarkable exhibit may find a permanent home. Do you think there's any chance that it might go on display in the National Museum of the American Indian on the National Mall? With 350,000 square feet of floor space housing the world’s greatest collection of Native American artifacts, you'd think this prestigious museum could find room for it somewhere.
On December 14th, 2009
Welcome to the discussion, Cathy. A good discussion results in better understanding for all.
I am interested to know who your authorities were, what evidence they had, and the logic they used to convince you that Leni Lenape means “original people.”
My primary authority is Reider T. Sherwin. He grew up on an inland off the coast of Norway. The Island people spoke Old Norse. When he came to America, he was surprised that he could understand the Indian place names on the road and tourist signs.
For evidence he collected data from 18 translators, who had compiled word lists from 25 Algonquin speaking tribes.
His logic was that if he could find words from at least two tribes that sounded the same and had similar meanings, then he would try to compare them with an Old Norse phrase. During over 18 years of study, he found over 15,000 comparisons, which he compiled into eight volumes of the Viking and the Red Man. In Volume IV he wrote “the Algonquin Indian Language is Old Norse.”
When I use Sherwin’s comparisons, I can decipher over 85% of the Algonquin witten words I find, both ancient text and attempts by modern Leni Lenape, who spell phonetically on the Internet.
In my second comment in this blog I explained how I used Sherwin to discover that Leni Lenape meant the “pure, abiding with the pure” and how their fore fathers were the “Noosh”
Bob, the moderator, has electronic copies of the pages. I request that he send copies of those pages to you.
Until someone provides me with evidence that 8000 of Sherwin’s comparisons are not valid, I will continue to believe that the Leni Lenape means “pure, abiding with the pure,” where the “pure” is in the same sense as the Puritans were “pure.”
When I give my speeches to audiences I use this patter:
“The Leni Lenape sold land to William Penn, so the Quakers would have a place to live.
“The two peoples lived together for 40 years without a major violent incident.
“The Puritans hung Mary Dwyer and many other Quakers.
“The Leni Lenape was more pure than the Puritans.
“SOMEBODY should tell that STORY!
On December 14th, 2009
Myron, if I receive requests from individuals, I will be happy to send copies of the referenced documents. I'm sorry, but I will not send them to people who have not requested them.
On December 30th, 2009
Hello Bob & Myron. Thank you for your welcome. It can also be traslated as "True People." My sources for the meaning of"Lenape" are My People...My Language...My Culture...My Way Of Life. No smugness, nor disrespect intended. It is what it is. There can be no absolutes when it comes to translating many indigenous words to another language. We simply did not have these same words or way of thinking. I can give no other explanation, nor do we feel one is needed.
Bob... a permanant home for this exhibit will come. I am sorry, but I am not at liberty to say anything more. We must all be patient and trust that Creator has a perfect plan. We have waited so long, surely we can wait a little longer to be sure things will go as they should. I, especially, will be most happy to see this collection in a permanant home, having used many of these items in my own Lenape presentations over the years. I have a feeling the collection will be expanded upon. Dr David Oestreicher is certainly a hero & friend to my family & I. Wawulamallessil! **
[** I'm not certain, but I believe that Wawulamallessil means something along the lines of "may you always live well." Ed.]back to top
This link does not support that the Leni Lenape were Christians but does admit that the EurAmerican Christians did not behave like Christians. Holloway's acceptance of the apology after 400 years is what I would expect a confirmed Christian would do.
Protestant Church Apologizes for Massacring Native Americans
Friday, November 27, 2009
NEW YORK — Members of one of America's oldest Protestant churches officially apologized Friday — for the first time — for massacring and displacing Native Americans 400 years ago.
"We consumed your resources, dehumanized your people and disregarded your culture, along with your dreams, hopes and great love for this land," the Rev. Robert Chase told descendants from both sides. "With pain, we the Collegiate Church, remember our part in these events."
The minister spoke on Native American Heritage Day at a reconciliation ceremony of the Lenape tribe with the Collegiate Church, started in 1628 in then-New Amsterdam as the Reformed Dutch Church.
The rite was held in front of the Museum of the American Indian in lower Manhattan, where Dutch colonizers had built their fort near an Indian trail now called Broadway, near Wall Street.
The Collegiate Church was considered the "conscience" of the new colony, whose merchants quickly developed commerce with the world in fur and grains — till then the turf of the natives..... read more about the Leni Lenape responseback to top